Background: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a hydrolytic enzyme involved in the deamination of adenosine to inosine. ADA is involved in T-lymphocyte differentiation and development. This study was aimed to determine the diagnostic value of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity test for the diagnosis of HIV positive patients in the Kurdish population.
Methods: This descriptive analytical case-control study was performed on 30 healthy and 60 HIV positive subjects. Blood CD4+ cell count was recorded and serum total ADA, and ADA1 and ADA2 isoenzyme activities were determined.
Results: Serum total ADA and ADA2 isoenzyme activity was significantly higher in HIV positive patients than in healthy subjects. CD4+ cell counts markedly decreased in all patients and showed a significant inverse correlation with ADA activities. Using a cut-off level of 36.52 U/L and 30.98 U/L for serum total ADA and ADA2, respectively, sensitivity and specificity were 90.9% and 90.27% for total ADA and 93% and 90% for ADA2, respectively.
Conclusions: Serum ADA was significantly increased in HIV infected patients. Therefore, because of its low cost and simplicity to perform, ADA activity might be considered a useful diagnostic tool among the other markers in this disease.