Background: There have been no reports for the frequency of Hb Q-Thailand [α 74(EF3)Asp→His, GAC > CAC] and its combinations either with other forms of thalassemia or hemoglobinopathies in Northern Thailand. The aims of this study were to search for Hb Q-Thailand and its combinations in Northern Thai population and to analyze fractions of hemoglobin in Hb Q-Thailand and its combinations on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chromatograms and/or capillary electrophoresis (CE) electrophoregrams.
Methods: Blood samples from public and private hospitals in 7 northern provinces of Thailand were analyzed for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy diagnoses using HPLC and/or CE and DNA analysis techniques at the Thalassemia Laboratory, Associated Medical Sciences Clinical Service Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Results: Hb Q-Thailand was found in 13 of 13,596 (0.10%) samples; 6 were heterozygous Hb Q-Thailand, 4 were compound Hb Q-Thailand/α-thalassemia-1 Southeast Asian (SEA) type deletion and 3 with combinations of Hb Q-Thailand/β0-thalassemia, Hb Q-Thailand/Hb E and Hb Q-Thailand/Hb E/α-thalassemia-1 SEA type deletion. The fractions of hemoglobin on HPLC chromatograms and CE electrophoregrams were observed based on types of combinations.
Conclusions: Hb Q-Thailand and its combinations could be found in northern Thai population with the frequency of 0.10%. Thus, the better understanding of HPLC chromatogram and/or CE electrophoregram patterns of Hb Q-Thailand and its combination is essential for diagnosis and genetic counseling of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in this area.