Background: The critically ill polytrauma patient continues to be one of the most complex cases in the intensive care unit (ICU). The molecular damage is closely connected with the severe, specific pathophysiological imbalances, such as severe inflammation, infections, hypermetabolism, oxidative stress, and ultimately multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).
Methods: The literature available on PubMed and Scopus was analysed for this study. The key words used in the search were “biomarkers in critically ill patients”, “molecular damage”, “sepsis biomarkers”, “miRNAs biomarkers”, and “oxidative stress”.
Results: After reviewing the available literature, 133 science articles were selected. According to recent studies, the gold goal in the management of the critically ill patient is the optimization of intensive care therapy dependent on the molecular damage.
Conclusions: Furthermore, evaluation, monitoring, and therapy adaptation in this type of patient is closely related to the biochemical and molecular disorders.