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Covid-19 Pandemic: Through the Lens of Science, a Painstaking Review by Abdullah Alsrhani, Kashaf Junaid, Sonia Younas, Sanaa S. M. Hamam, Hasan Ejaz

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has imperiled human lives and global infrastructure since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in China. The current review meticulously summarizes the COVID-19 pandemic situation through the lens of science from the inception of the outbreak to the current progression, which is valuable to mitigate the current pandemic situation.
Methods: We reviewed all the relevant literature available on PubMed, Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, and World Health Organization (WHO) website related to COVID-19 from the inception of the outbreak to 18 June 2020. We selected ninety different scientific studies and reports to compile the current review.
Results: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a betacoronavirus with four major structural proteins encoded by S, M, E, and N genes and distinct in morphology. The potential provenance of SARS-Cov-2 is zoonotic, and it binds to the host cell receptors by spike protein. The SARS-CoV-2 infectious cycle carries on through direct contact, air, inanimate objects, and contaminated surfaces. The reproductive number (R0) of SARS-CoV-2 is 2 to 3.5, representing that one infected patient can spread this virus to two to three people. An expeditious laboratory diagnosis has a pivotal role in patient management and prevention. Due to the lack of definitive treatment, symptomatic medication regimen and supportive organ therapies are adapted for debilitated patients.
Conclusions: Nucleoside analogs and protease-inhibitors have approved to attenuate the viral infection until the discovery of a specific drug. The other treatment strategies comprise antimalarial drugs, monoclonal antibodies, and glucocorticoids. The use of alcoholic scrubs, sodium hypochlorite, masks, social distancing, and quarantine the affected individual is inevitable to eradicate the infection vector and to break the transmission path.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2020.200642