Background: The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) rs1058587, rs4808793, and rs1059369 polymorphisms, serum concentrations of GDF15, and International Staging System (ISS) staging or Durie-Salmon staging system (DS) staging in multiple myeloma patients and whether its polymorphism affects the expression of serum GDF15 in Chinese population.
Methods: A total of 120 patients with multiple myeloma and 119 healthy controls were included in the study. The SNaPshot technique was used to detect the GDF15 gene polymorphisms. Serum GDF15 levels were measured using an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) kit.
Results: There was no significant difference in genotype distribution or allele frequency of three loci between multiple myeloma patients and healthy controls. However, the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of rs1059369 in ISS stage I were significantly different from those in ISS stage II (p = 0.008), and the distribution of rs1058587 genotype was different between ISS stage II and ISS stage III (p = 0.014). The overall serum concentration of GDF15 and the same genotype at the same locus (rs1058587: GC, GG; rs4808793: CC, GC; rs1059369: AA, AT, and TT) in patients with multiple myeloma was significantly higher than in the healthy control group (all p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Our results showed the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of rs1059369 and rs1058587 of GDF15 gene have some association with ISS and DS stage. But the polymorphism of GDF15 did not affect the expression of serum GDF15 in patients with multiple myeloma.