Background: Fibrinogen plays an important role in hemostasis. The normal concentration of fibrinogen in blood plasma is between 1.8 - 4.2 g/L. Decreased fibrinogen levels are observed in congenital afibrinogenemia, hypofibrinogenemia, dysfibrinogenemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, fibrinolytic therapy, some more severe hepatic parenchymal disorders, and increased blood loss. Elevated fibrinogen levels occur in inflammatory diseases and neoplastic diseases, in pregnancy, and postoperative conditions. Functional fibrinogen measurement is also one of the basic coagulation screening tests. The fibrinogen antigen assay is used to distinguish between qualitative and quantitative fibrinogen disorders.
Methods: The aim of the study was the use of fibrinogen determination methods in differential diagnosis of hypofibrinogenemia and dysfibrinogenemia, statistical evaluation and determine the relationship of fibrinogen Clauss assay, prothrombin time (PT) derived fibrinogen assay, and fibrinogen antigen in the group of 60 patients with congenital fibrinogen disorders (n = 40 dysfibrinogenemia; n = 20 hypofibrinogenemia).
Results: The results measured by the PT-derived fibrinogen assay were approximately four times higher compared to the fibrinogen Clauss assay in the group of patients with dysfibrinogenemia. In patients with hypofibrinogenemia, there is a correlation (r = 0.9016) between the fibrinogen Clauss assay and PT-derived fibrinogen assay with a statistical significance of p < 0.0001. Using a linear or quadratic interpolation function, we were able to determine the fibrinogen Clauss assay and the fibrinogen antigen assay before analysis.
Conclusions: The higher level of the PT-derived fibrinogen assay compared to the fibrinogen Clauss assay in the group of patients with dysfibrinogenemia may pose a greater risk to asymptomatic patients who require diagnosis and treatment in case of bleeding. The fibrinogen value using the PT-derived fibrinogen assay could erroneously give a normal level. The use of the interpolation function is important to estimate the value of fibrinogen activity and antigen before the analysis itself by the Clauss assay or analysis by the fibrinogen antigen assay.